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Pages de MAN

IP(8)				     Linux				 IP(8)



NAME
       ip - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels

SYNOPSIS
       ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help }


       OBJECT := { link | addr | addrlabel | route | rule | neigh | tunnel |
	       maddr | mroute | monitor }


       OPTIONS := { -V[ersion] | -s[tatistics] | -r[esolve] | -f[amily] { inet
	       | inet6 | ipx | dnet | link } | -o[neline] }

       ip link set DEVICE { up | down | arp { on | off } |
	       promisc { on | off } |
	       allmulticast { on | off } |
	       dynamic { on | off } |
	       multicast { on | off } |
	       txqueuelen PACKETS |
	       name NEWNAME |
	       address LLADDR | broadcast LLADDR |
	       mtu MTU |
	       netns PID }

       ip link show [ DEVICE ]

       ip addr { add | del } IFADDR dev STRING

       ip addr { show | flush } [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] [ to PREFIX
	       ] [ FLAG-LIST ] [ label PATTERN ]

       IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ]
	       [ label STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]

       SCOPE-ID := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]

       FLAG-LIST := [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG

       FLAG := [ permanent | dynamic | secondary | primary | tentative | dep-
	       recated | dadfailed | temporary ]

       ip addrlabel { add | del } prefix PREFIX [ dev DEV ] [ label NUMBER ]

       ip addrlabel { list | flush }

       ip route { list | flush } SELECTOR

       ip route get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING  ] [ oif STRING ] [ tos
	       TOS ]

       ip route { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE

       SELECTOR := [ root PREFIX ] [ match PREFIX ] [ exact PREFIX ] [ table
	       TABLE_ID ] [ proto RTPROTO ] [ type TYPE ] [ scope SCOPE ]

       ROUTE := NODE_SPEC [ INFO_SPEC ]

       NODE_SPEC := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ table TABLE_ID ] [ proto
	       RTPROTO ] [ scope SCOPE ] [ metric METRIC ]

       INFO_SPEC := NH OPTIONS FLAGS [ nexthop NH ] ...

       NH := [ via ADDRESS ] [ dev STRING ] [ weight NUMBER ] NHFLAGS

       OPTIONS := FLAGS [ mtu NUMBER ] [ advmss NUMBER ] [ rtt TIME ] [ rttvar
	       TIME ] [ window NUMBER ] [ cwnd NUMBER ] [ initcwnd NUMBER ] [
	       ssthresh REALM ] [ realms REALM ] [ rto_min TIME ]

       TYPE := [ unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | throw | unreachable
	       | prohibit | blackhole | nat ]

       TABLE_ID := [ local| main | default | all | NUMBER ]

       SCOPE := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]

       NHFLAGS := [ onlink | pervasive ]

       RTPROTO := [ kernel | boot | static | NUMBER ]

       ip rule	[ list | add | del | flush ] SELECTOR ACTION

       SELECTOR := [ from PREFIX ] [ to PREFIX ] [ tos TOS ] [ fwmark
	       FWMARK[/MASK] ] [ iif STRING ] [ oif STRING ] [ pref NUMBER ]

       ACTION := [ table TABLE_ID ] [ nat ADDRESS ] [ prohibit | reject |
	       unreachable ] [ realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM ]

       TABLE_ID := [ local | main | default | NUMBER ]

       ip neigh { add | del | change | replace } { ADDR [ lladdr LLADDR ] [
	       nud { permanent | noarp | stale | reachable } ] | proxy ADDR }
	       [ dev DEV ]

       ip neigh { show | flush } [ to PREFIX ] [ dev DEV ] [ nud STATE ]

       ip tunnel { add | change | del | show | prl } [ NAME ]
	       [ mode MODE ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ]
	       [ [i|o]seq ] [ [i|o]key KEY ] [ [i|o]csum ] ]
	       [ encaplimit ELIM ] [ ttl TTL ]
	       [ tos TOS ] [ flowlabel FLOWLABEL ]
	       [ prl-default ADDR ] [ prl-nodefault ADDR ] [ prl-delete ADDR ]
	       [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ] [ dscp inherit ]

       MODE :=	{ ipip | gre | sit | isatap | ip6ip6 | ipip6 | any }

       ADDR := { IP_ADDRESS | any }

       TOS := { NUMBER | inherit }

       ELIM := { none | 0..255 }

       TTL := { 1..255 | inherit }

       KEY := { DOTTED_QUAD | NUMBER }

       TIME := NUMBER[s|ms|us|ns|j]

       ip maddr [ add | del ] MULTIADDR dev STRING

       ip maddr show [ dev STRING ]

       ip mroute show [ PREFIX ] [ from PREFIX ] [ iif DEVICE ]

       ip monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]

       ip xfrm XFRM_OBJECT { COMMAND }

       XFRM_OBJECT := { state | policy | monitor }

       ip xfrm state { add | update } ID [ XFRM_OPT ]  [ mode MODE ]
		[ reqid REQID ]	 [ seq SEQ ]  [ replay-window SIZE ]
		[ flag FLAG-LIST ]  [ encap ENCAP ]  [ sel SELECTOR ]
		[ LIMIT-LIST ]

       ip xfrm state allocspi ID  [ mode MODE ]	 [ reqid REQID ]  [ seq SEQ ]
	       [ min SPI max SPI ]

       ip xfrm state { delete | get } ID

       ip xfrm state { deleteall | list } [ ID ]  [ mode MODE ]
		[ reqid REQID ]	 [ flag FLAG_LIST ]

       ip xfrm state flush [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]

       ip xfrm state count

       ID :=  [ src ADDR ]  [ dst ADDR ]  [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]	[ spi SPI ]

       XFRM_PROTO :=  [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]

       MODE :=	[ transport | tunnel | ro | beet ] (default=transport)

       FLAG-LIST :=  [ FLAG-LIST ] FLAG

       FLAG :=	[ noecn | decap-dscp | wildrecv ]

       ENCAP := ENCAP-TYPE SPORT DPORT OADDR

       ENCAP-TYPE := espinudp  | espinudp-nonike

       ALGO-LIST := [ ALGO-LIST ] | [ ALGO ]

       ALGO := ALGO_TYPE ALGO_NAME ALGO_KEY

       ALGO_TYPE :=  [ enc | auth | comp ]

       SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN]  [ UPSPEC ]	[ dev DEV ]

       UPSPEC := proto PROTO [[ sport PORT ]  [ dport PORT ] |
		[ type NUMBER ]	 [ code NUMBER ]]

       LIMIT-LIST := [ LIMIT-LIST ] |  [ limit LIMIT ]

       LIMIT :=	 [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ]
	       | [ [byte-soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] |
		[ [packet-soft|packet-hard] COUNT ]

       ip xfrm policy { add | update }	dir DIR SELECTOR [ index INDEX ]
		[ ptype PTYPE ]	 [ action ACTION ]  [ priority PRIORITY ]
		[ LIMIT-LIST ] [ TMPL-LIST ]

       ip xfrm policy { delete | get }	dir DIR [ SELECTOR | index INDEX  ]
		[ ptype PTYPE ]

       ip xfrm policy { deleteall | list }  [ dir DIR ] [ SELECTOR ]
		[ index INDEX ]	 [ action ACTION ]  [ priority PRIORITY ]

       ip xfrm policy flush  [ ptype PTYPE ]

       ip xfrm count

       PTYPE :=	 [ main | sub ] (default=main)

       DIR :=  [ in | out | fwd ]

       SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN] [ UPSPEC  ] [ dev DEV ]

       UPSPEC := proto PROTO [	[ sport PORT ]	[ dport PORT ] |
		[ type NUMBER ]	 [ code NUMBER ] ]

       ACTION :=  [ allow | block ] (default=allow)

       LIMIT-LIST :=  [ LIMIT-LIST ] |	[ limit LIMIT ]

       LIMIT :=	 [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ]
	       |  [ [byte-soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] |
	       [packet-soft|packet-hard] NUMBER ]

       TMPL-LIST :=  [ TMPL-LIST ] |  [ tmpl TMPL ]

       TMPL := ID [ mode MODE ]	 [ reqid REQID ]  [ level LEVEL ]

       ID :=  [ src ADDR ]  [ dst ADDR ]  [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]	[ spi SPI ]

       XFRM_PROTO :=  [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]

       MODE :=	[ transport | tunnel | beet ] (default=transport)

       LEVEL :=	 [ required | use ] (default=required)

       ip xfrm monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]



OPTIONS
       -V, -Version
	      print the version of the ip utility and exit.


       -s, -stats, -statistics
	      output more information.	If the option appears twice  or	 more,
	      the amount of information increases.  As a rule, the information
	      is statistics or some time values.


       -f, -family
	      followed by protocol family  identifier:	inet,  inet6  or  link
	      ,enforce	the  protocol  family  to  use.	  If the option is not
	      present, the protocol family is guessed  from  other  arguments.
	      If the rest of the command line does not give enough information
	      to guess the family, ip falls back to the default	 one,  usually
	      inet  or	any.  link is a special family identifier meaning that
	      no networking protocol is involved.


       -4     shortcut for -family inet.


       -6     shortcut for -family inet6.


       -0     shortcut for -family link.


       -o, -oneline
	      output each record on a single line, replacing line  feeds  with
	      the  '\	character.  This  is convenient when you want to count
	      records with wc(1)
	       or to grep(1) the output.


       -r, -resolve
	      use the system's name resolver to print  DNS  names  instead  of
	      host addresses.


IP - COMMAND SYNTAX
   OBJECT
       link   - network device.


       address
	      - protocol (IP or IPv6) address on a device.


       addrlabel
	      - label configuration for protocol address selection.


       neighbour
	      - ARP or NDISC cache entry.


       route  - routing table entry.


       rule   - rule in routing policy database.


       maddress
	      - multicast address.


       mroute - multicast routing cache entry.


       tunnel - tunnel over IP.


       xfrm   - framework for IPsec protocol.


       The  names  of  all objects may be written in full or abbreviated form,
       f.e.  address is abbreviated as addr or just a.


   COMMAND
       Specifies the action to perform on the object.	The  set  of  possible
       actions	depends on the object type.  As a rule, it is possible to add,
       delete and show (or list ) objects, but some objects do not  allow  all
       of these operations or have some additional commands.  The help command
       is available for all objects.  It prints out a list of  available  com-
       mands and argument syntax conventions.

       If no command is given, some default command is assumed.	 Usually it is
       list or, if the objects of this class cannot be listed, help.


ip link - network device configuration
       link is a network device and the	 corresponding	commands  display  and
       change the state of devices.


   ip link set - change device attributes
       dev NAME (default)
	      NAME specifies network device to operate on.


       up and down
	      change the state of the device to UP or DOWN.


       arp on or arp off
	      change the NOARP flag on the device.


       multicast on or multicast off
	      change the MULTICAST flag on the device.


       dynamic on or dynamic off
	      change the DYNAMIC flag on the device.


       name NAME
	      change  the  name	 of  the device.  This operation is not recom-
	      mended if the device is running or has  some  addresses  already
	      configured.


       txqueuelen NUMBER

       txqlen NUMBER
	      change the transmit queue length of the device.


       mtu NUMBER
	      change the MTU of the device.


       address LLADDRESS
	      change the station address of the interface.


       broadcast LLADDRESS

       brd LLADDRESS

       peer LLADDRESS
	      change the link layer broadcast address or the peer address when
	      the interface is POINTOPOINT.


       netns PID
	      move the device to the network  namespace	 associated  with  the
	      process PID.


       Warning: If multiple parameter changes are requested, ip aborts immedi-
       ately after any of the changes have failed.  This is the only case when
       ip  can	move the system to an unpredictable state.  The solution is to
       avoid changing several parameters with one ip link set call.


   ip link show - display device attributes
       dev NAME (default)
	      NAME specifies the network device to show.  If this argument  is
	      omitted all devices are listed.


       up     only display running interfaces.


ip address - protocol address management.
       The  address  is	 a protocol (IP or IPv6) address attached to a network
       device.	Each device  must  have	 at  least  one	 address  to  use  the
       corresponding  protocol.	  It  is  possible  to	have several different
       addresses attached to one device.  These addresses  are	not  discrimi-
       nated,  so that the term alias is not quite appropriate for them and we
       do not use it in this document.

       The ip addr command displays addresses and their properties,  adds  new
       addresses and deletes old ones.


   ip address add - add new protocol address.
       dev NAME
	      the name of the device to add the address to.


       local ADDRESS (default)
	      the  address of the interface. The format of the address depends
	      on the protocol. It is a dotted quad for IP and  a  sequence  of
	      hexadecimal halfwords separated by colons for IPv6.  The ADDRESS
	      may be followed by a slash and a decimal	number	which  encodes
	      the network prefix length.


       peer ADDRESS
	      the  address  of the remote endpoint for pointopoint interfaces.
	      Again, the ADDRESS may be followed by a slash and a decimal num-
	      ber,  encoding  the network prefix length.  If a peer address is
	      specified, the local address cannot have a prefix	 length.   The
	      network  prefix is associated with the peer rather than with the
	      local address.


       broadcast ADDRESS
	      the broadcast address on the interface.

	      It is possible to use the special symbols '+' and '-' instead of
	      the  broadcast  address.	In this case, the broadcast address is
	      derived by setting/resetting the host bits of the interface pre-
	      fix.


       label NAME
	      Each  address  may  be  tagged with a label string.  In order to
	      preserve compatibility with Linux-2.0 net aliases,  this	string
	      must  coincide  with  the name of the device or must be prefixed
	      with the device name followed by colon.


       scope SCOPE_VALUE
	      the scope of the area where this address is valid.   The	avail-
	      able  scopes are listed in file /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.	Prede-
	      fined scope values are:

		      global - the address is globally valid.

		      site - (IPv6 only) the address is site local, i.e. it is
		      valid inside this site.

		      link  - the address is link local, i.e. it is valid only
		      on this device.

		      host - the address is valid only inside this host.


   ip address delete - delete protocol address
       Arguments: coincide with the arguments of ip addr add.  The device name
       is  a  required	argument.  The rest are optional.  If no arguments are
       given, the first address is deleted.


   ip address show - look at protocol addresses
       dev NAME (default)
	      name of device.


       scope SCOPE_VAL
	      only list addresses with this scope.


       to PREFIX
	      only list addresses matching this prefix.


       label PATTERN
	      only list addresses with labels matching the  PATTERN.   PATTERN
	      is a usual shell style pattern.


       dynamic and permanent
	      (IPv6  only)  only  list	addresses  installed  due to stateless
	      address configuration  or	 only  list  permanent	(not  dynamic)
	      addresses.


       tentative
	      (IPv6 only) only list addresses which have not yet passed dupli-
	      cate address detection.


       deprecated
	      (IPv6 only) only list deprecated addresses.


       dadfailed
	      (IPv6 only) only list  addresses	which  have  failed  duplicate
	      address detection.


       temporary
	      (IPv6 only) only list temporary addresses.


       primary and secondary
	      only list primary (or secondary) addresses.


   ip address flush - flush protocol addresses
       This  command flushes the protocol addresses selected by some criteria.


       This command has the same arguments as show.  The difference is that it
       does not run when no arguments are given.


       Warning:	 This  command	(and  other flush commands described below) is
       pretty dangerous.  If you make a mistake, it will not forgive  it,  but
       will cruelly purge all the addresses.


       With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out
       the number of deleted addresses and the number of rounds made to	 flush
       the  address  list.   If this option is given twice, ip addr flush also
       dumps all the deleted addresses in the format described in the previous
       subsection.


ip addrlabel - protocol address label management.
       IPv6 address label is used for address selection described in RFC 3484.
       Precedence is managed by userspace, and only label is stored in kernel.


   ip addrlabel add - add an address label
       the command adds an address label entry to the kernel.

       prefix PREFIX

       dev DEV
	      the outgoing interface.

       label NUMBER
	      the label for the prefix.	 0xffffffff is reserved.

   ip addrlabel del - delete an address label
       the  command  deletes an address label entry in the kernel.  Arguments:
       coincide with the arguments of  ip  addrlabel  add  but	label  is  not
       required.

   ip addrlabel list - list address labels
       the command show contents of address labels.

   ip addrlabel flush - flush address labels
       the  command  flushes  the  contents  of address labels and it does not
       restore default settings.

ip neighbour - neighbour/arp tables management.
       neighbour objects establish bindings  between  protocol	addresses  and
       link  layer  addresses  for  hosts  sharing  the	 same link.  Neighbour
       entries are organized into tables. The IPv4 neighbour table is known by
       another name - the ARP table.


       The corresponding commands display neighbour bindings and their proper-
       ties, add new neighbour entries and delete old ones.


   ip neighbour add - add a new neighbour entry
   ip neighbour change - change an existing entry
   ip neighbour replace - add a new entry or change an existing one
       These commands create new neighbour records or update existing ones.


       to ADDRESS (default)
	      the protocol address of the neighbour. It is either an  IPv4  or
	      IPv6 address.


       dev NAME
	      the interface to which this neighbour is attached.


       lladdr LLADDRESS
	      the  link layer address of the neighbour.	 LLADDRESS can also be
	      null.


       nud NUD_STATE
	      the state of the neighbour entry.	 nud is	 an  abbreviation  for
	      'Neigh  bour  Unreachability Detection'.	The state can take one
	      of the following values:

		      permanent - the neighbour entry is valid forever and can
		      be only be removed administratively.


		      noarp  -	the  neighbour	entry is valid. No attempts to
		      validate this entry will be made but it can  be  removed
		      when its lifetime expires.


		      reachable	 -  the	 neighbour  entry  is  valid until the
		      reachability timeout expires.


		      stale - the neighbour entry  is  valid  but  suspicious.
		      This  option  to	ip neigh does not change the neighbour
		      state if it was valid and the address is not changed  by
		      this command.


   ip neighbour delete - delete a neighbour entry
       This command invalidates a neighbour entry.


       The arguments are the same as with ip neigh add, except that lladdr and
       nud are ignored.


       Warning: Attempts to delete or manually change a noarp entry created by
       the  kernel  may	 result in unpredictable behaviour.  Particularly, the
       kernel may try to resolve this address even on a NOARP interface or  if
       the address is multicast or broadcast.


   ip neighbour show - list neighbour entries
       This commands displays neighbour tables.


       to ADDRESS (default)
	      the prefix selecting the neighbours to list.


       dev NAME
	      only list the neighbours attached to this device.


       unused only list neighbours which are not currently in use.


       nud NUD_STATE
	      only list neighbour entries in this state.  NUD_STATE takes val-
	      ues listed below or  the	special	 value	all  which  means  all
	      states.	This  option may occur more than once.	If this option
	      is absent, ip lists all entries except for none and noarp.


   ip neighbour flush - flush neighbour entries
       This command flushes neighbour tables, selecting entries	 to  flush  by
       some criteria.


       This  command has the same arguments as show.  The differences are that
       it does not run when no arguments  are  given,  and  that  the  default
       neighbour states to be flushed do not include permanent and noarp.


       With  the  -statistics  option, the command becomes verbose.  It prints
       out the number of deleted neighbours and the number of rounds  made  to
       flush  the  neighbour  table.   If  the option is given twice, ip neigh
       flush also dumps all the deleted neighbours.


ip route - routing table management
       Manipulate route entries in the kernel routing tables keep  information
       about paths to other networked nodes.

       Route types:

	       unicast	- the route entry describes real paths to the destina-
	       tions covered by the route prefix.


	       unreachable - these destinations are unreachable.  Packets  are
	       discarded  and  the ICMP message host unreachable is generated.
	       The local senders get an EHOSTUNREACH error.


	       blackhole - these destinations are  unreachable.	  Packets  are
	       discarded silently.  The local senders get an EINVAL error.


	       prohibit	 -  these  destinations	 are unreachable.  Packets are
	       discarded and the ICMP message  communication  administratively
	       prohibited  is  generated.   The	 local	senders	 get an EACCES
	       error.


	       local - the destinations are assigned to this host.  The	 pack-
	       ets are looped back and delivered locally.


	       broadcast  -  the  destinations	are  broadcast addresses.  The
	       packets are sent as link broadcasts.


	       throw - a special  control  route  used	together  with	policy
	       rules.  If  such	 a  route is selected, lookup in this table is
	       terminated pretending that no route was found.  Without	policy
	       routing	it  is	equivalent  to the absence of the route in the
	       routing table.  The packets are dropped and  the	 ICMP  message
	       net unreachable is generated.  The local senders get an ENETUN-
	       REACH error.


	       nat - a special NAT route.  Destinations covered by the	prefix
	       are  considered	to  be	dummy  (or  external)  addresses which
	       require translation to real (or internal) ones before  forward-
	       ing.   The  addresses  to  translate  to	 are selected with the
	       attribute Warning: Route NAT is no longer  supported  in	 Linux
	       2.6.


	       via.

	       anycast	 -   not  implemented  the  destinations  are  anycast
	       addresses assigned to this host.	 They are mainly equivalent to
	       local with one difference: such addresses are invalid when used
	       as the source address of any packet.


	       multicast - a special type used for multicast routing.	It  is
	       not present in normal routing tables.


       Route  tables:  Linux-2.x  can  pack routes into several routing tables
       identified by a number in the range from 1 to 255 or by name  from  the
       file  /etc/iproute2/rt_tables By default all normal routes are inserted
       into the main table (ID 254) and the kernel only uses this  table  when
       calculating routes.


       Actually,  one  other  table always exists, which is invisible but even
       more important.	It is the local table (ID 255).	 This  table  consists
       of routes for local and broadcast addresses.  The kernel maintains this
       table automatically and the administrator usually need not modify it or
       even look at it.

       The multiple routing tables enter the game when policy routing is used.


   ip route add - add new route
   ip route change - change route
   ip route replace - change or add new one
       to TYPE PREFIX (default)
	      the destination prefix of the route.  If	TYPE  is  omitted,  ip
	      assumes  type  unicast.	Other values of TYPE are listed above.
	      PREFIX is an IP or IPv6 address optionally followed by  a	 slash
	      and  the prefix length.  If the length of the prefix is missing,
	      ip assumes a full-length host route.  There is  also  a  special
	      PREFIX  default - which is equivalent to IP 0/0 or to IPv6 ::/0.


       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
	      the Type Of Service (TOS) key.  This key has no associated  mask
	      and  the	longest match is understood as: First, compare the TOS
	      of the route and of the packet.  If they are not equal, then the
	      packet  may  still match a route with a zero TOS.	 TOS is either
	      an  8   bit   hexadecimal	  number   or	an   identifier	  from
	      /etc/iproute2/rt_dsfield.


       metric NUMBER

       preference NUMBER
	      the preference value of the route.  NUMBER is an arbitrary 32bit
	      number.


       table TABLEID
	      the table to add this route to.  TABLEID may be a	 number	 or  a
	      string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.  If this parameter
	      is omitted, ip assumes the main table,  with  the	 exception  of
	      local  ,	broadcast and nat routes, which are put into the local
	      table by default.


       dev NAME
	      the output device name.


       via ADDRESS
	      the address of the nexthop router.  Actually, the sense of  this
	      field  depends  on the route type.  For normal unicast routes it
	      is either the true next hop router or, if it is a	 direct	 route
	      installed	 in  BSD compatibility mode, it can be a local address
	      of the interface.	 For NAT routes it is the first address of the
	      block of translated IP destinations.


       src ADDRESS
	      the  source  address  to prefer when sending to the destinations
	      covered by the route prefix.


       realm REALMID
	      the realm to which this route is assigned.   REALMID  may	 be  a
	      number or a string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_realms.


       mtu MTU

       mtu lock MTU
	      the MTU along the path to the destination.  If the modifier lock
	      is not used, the MTU may be updated by the kernel	 due  to  Path
	      MTU  Discovery.	If the modifier lock is used, no path MTU dis-
	      covery will be tried, all packets will be sent  without  the  DF
	      bit in IPv4 case or fragmented to MTU for IPv6.


       window NUMBER
	      the  maximal  window for TCP to advertise to these destinations,
	      measured in bytes.  It limits maximal data bursts that  our  TCP
	      peers are allowed to send to us.


       rtt TIME
	      the  initial  RTT	 ('Round Trip Time') estimate. If no suffix is
	      specified the units are raw values passed directly to the	 rout-
	      ing code to maintain compatability with previous releases.  Oth-
	      erwise if a suffix of s, sec or secs is used to specify seconds;
	      ms,  msec or msecs to specify milliseconds; us, usec or usecs to
	      specify microseconds; ns, nsec or nsecs to specify  nanoseconds;
	      j,  hz  or jiffies to specify jiffies, the value is converted to
	      what the routing code expects.



       rttvar TIME (2.3.15+ only)
	      the initial RTT variance estimate. Values are specified as  with
	      rtt above.


       rto_min TIME (2.6.23+ only)
	      the minimum TCP Retransmission TimeOut to use when communicating
	      with this destination.  Values are specified as with rtt	above.


       ssthresh NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
	      an estimate for the initial slow start threshold.


       cwnd NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
	      the clamp for congestion window.	It is ignored if the lock flag
	      is not used.


       initcwnd NUMBER
	      the maximum initial congestion window (cwnd) size in  MSS	 of  a
	      TCP connection.


       advmss NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
	      the  MSS ('Maximal Segment Size') to advertise to these destina-
	      tions when establishing TCP connections.	If it  is  not	given,
	      Linux  uses a default value calculated from the first hop device
	      MTU.  (If the path to  these  destination	 is  asymmetric,  this
	      guess may be wrong.)


       reordering NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
	      Maximal  reordering  on  the path to this destination.  If it is
	      not given, Linux uses the value selected	with  sysctl  variable
	      net/ipv4/tcp_reordering.


       nexthop NEXTHOP
	      the  nexthop  of	a multipath route.  NEXTHOP is a complex value
	      with its own syntax similar to the top level argument lists:

		      via ADDRESS - is the nexthop router.


		      dev NAME - is the output device.


		      weight NUMBER - is a weight for this element of a multi-
		      path route reflecting its relative bandwidth or quality.


       scope SCOPE_VAL
	      the scope of the	destinations  covered  by  the	route  prefix.
	      SCOPE_VAL	  may	be   a	number	or  a  string  from  the  file
	      /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.	 If  this  parameter  is  omitted,  ip
	      assumes  scope  global  for  all gatewayed unicast routes, scope
	      link for direct unicast and broadcast routes and scope host  for
	      local routes.


       protocol RTPROTO
	      the routing protocol identifier of this route.  RTPROTO may be a
	      number or a string from the  file	 /etc/iproute2/rt_protos.   If
	      the  routing  protocol ID is not given, ip assumes protocol boot
	      (i.e. it assumes the route was  added  by	 someone  who  doesn't
	      understand what they are doing).	Several protocol values have a
	      fixed interpretation.  Namely:

		      redirect - the route was installed due to an ICMP	 redi-
		      rect.


		      kernel  -	 the  route was installed by the kernel during
		      autoconfiguration.


		      boot  -  the  route  was	installed  during  the	bootup
		      sequence.	 If a routing daemon starts, it will purge all
		      of them.


		      static - the route was installed by the administrator to
		      override	dynamic	 routing.  Routing daemon will respect
		      them and, probably, even advertise them to its peers.


		      ra - the route was installed by Router Discovery	proto-
		      col.


	      The rest of the values are not reserved and the administrator is
	      free to assign (or not to assign) protocol tags.


       onlink pretend that the nexthop is directly attached to this link, even
	      if it does not match any interface prefix.


   ip route delete - delete route
       ip  route  del has the same arguments as ip route add, but their seman-
       tics are a bit different.

       Key values (to, tos, preference and table) select the route to  delete.
       If optional attributes are present, ip verifies that they coincide with
       the attributes of the route to delete.  If no route with the given  key
       and attributes was found, ip route del fails.


   ip route show - list routes
       the command displays the contents of the routing tables or the route(s)
       selected by some criteria.


       to SELECTOR (default)
	      only select routes from the given range of destinations.	SELEC-
	      TOR  consists of an optional modifier (root, match or exact) and
	      a prefix.	 root PREFIX selects routes with prefixes not  shorter
	      than  PREFIX.   F.e.  root 0/0 selects the entire routing table.
	      match PREFIX selects routes with prefixes not longer  than  PRE-
	      FIX.   F.e.  match 10.0/16 selects 10.0/16, 10/8 and 0/0, but it
	      does not select 10.1/16 and 10.0.0/24.   And  exact  PREFIX  (or
	      just  PREFIX)  selects routes with this exact prefix. If neither
	      of these options are present, ip assumes root 0/0 i.e. it	 lists
	      the entire table.


       tos TOS
	      dsfield TOS only select routes with the given TOS.


       table TABLEID
	      show  the	 routes from this table(s).  The default setting is to
	      show tablemain.  TABLEID may either be the ID of a real table or
	      one of the special values:

		      all - list all of the tables.

		      cache - dump the routing cache.


       cloned

       cached list  cloned  routes  i.e.  routes which were dynamically forked
	      from other routes because some route attribute  (f.e.  MTU)  was
	      updated.	Actually, it is equivalent to table cache.


       from SELECTOR
	      the same syntax as for to, but it binds the source address range
	      rather than destinations.	 Note that the from option only	 works
	      with cloned routes.


       protocol RTPROTO
	      only list routes of this protocol.


       scope SCOPE_VAL
	      only list routes with this scope.


       type TYPE
	      only list routes of this type.


       dev NAME
	      only list routes going via this device.


       via PREFIX
	      only  list routes going via the nexthop routers selected by PRE-
	      FIX.


       src PREFIX
	      only list routes with preferred  source  addresses  selected  by
	      PREFIX.


       realm REALMID

       realms FROMREALM/TOREALM
	      only list routes with these realms.


   ip route flush - flush routing tables
       this command flushes routes selected by some criteria.


       The arguments have the same syntax and semantics as the arguments of ip
       route show, but routing tables are not listed  but  purged.   The  only
       difference  is  the  default action: show dumps all the IP main routing
       table but flush prints the helper page.


       With the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out
       the number of deleted routes and the number of rounds made to flush the
       routing table. If the option is given twice, ip route flush also	 dumps
       all  the deleted routes in the format described in the previous subsec-
       tion.


   ip route get - get a single route
       this command gets a single route to a destination and prints  its  con-
       tents exactly as the kernel sees it.


       to ADDRESS (default)
	      the destination address.


       from ADDRESS
	      the source address.


       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
	      the Type Of Service.


       iif NAME
	      the device from which this packet is expected to arrive.


       oif NAME
	      force the output device on which this packet will be routed.


       connected
	      if no source address (option from) was given, relookup the route
	      with the source set to the preferred address received  from  the
	      first  lookup.  If policy routing is used, it may be a different
	      route.


       Note that this operation is not equivalent  to  ip  route  show.	  show
       shows  existing	routes.	  get  resolves them and creates new clones if
       necessary.  Essentially, get is equivalent to sending  a	 packet	 along
       this  path.   If	 the  iif  argument is not given, the kernel creates a
       route to output packets towards the  requested  destination.   This  is
       equivalent  to  pinging	the  destination with a subsequent ip route ls
       cache, however, no packets are actually sent.  With the	iif  argument,
       the  kernel  pretends  that  a  packet  arrived from this interface and
       searches for a path to forward the packet.


ip rule - routing policy database management
       Rules in the routing policy database control the route selection	 algo-
       rithm.


       Classic	routing algorithms used in the Internet make routing decisions
       based only on the destination address of packets (and  in  theory,  but
       not in practice, on the TOS field).


       In  some	 circumstances	we want to route packets differently depending
       not only on destination addresses, but also  on	other  packet  fields:
       source  address,	 IP  protocol, transport protocol ports or even packet
       payload.	 This task is called 'policy routing'.


       To solve this task, the conventional destination based  routing	table,
       ordered	according to the longest match rule, is replaced with a 'rout-
       ing policy database' (or RPDB), which selects routes by executing  some
       set of rules.


       Each  policy  routing  rule consists of a selector and an action predi-
       cate.  The RPDB is scanned in the order	of  increasing	priority.  The
       selector	 of  each  rule	 is  applied  to  {source address, destination
       address, incoming interface, tos, fwmark} and, if the selector  matches
       the  packet,  the action is performed.  The action predicate may return
       with success.  In this case, it will either give	 a  route  or  failure
       indication  and the RPDB lookup is terminated. Otherwise, the RPDB pro-
       gram continues on the next rule.


       Semantically, natural action is to select the nexthop  and  the	output
       device.


       At  startup  time  the kernel configures the default RPDB consisting of
       three rules:


       1.     Priority: 0, Selector: match anything,  Action:  lookup  routing
	      table  local (ID 255).  The local table is a special routing ta-
	      ble containing high priority control routes for local and broad-
	      cast addresses.

	      Rule 0 is special. It cannot be deleted or overridden.


       2.     Priority:	 32766, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup rout-
	      ing table main (ID 254).	The main table is the  normal  routing
	      table containing all non-policy routes. This rule may be deleted
	      and/or overridden with other ones by the administrator.


       3.     Priority: 32767, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup	 rout-
	      ing  table default (ID 253).  The default table is empty.	 It is
	      reserved for some post-processing if no previous	default	 rules
	      selected the packet.  This rule may also be deleted.


       Each  RPDB  entry  has  additional  attributes.	 F.e.  each rule has a
       pointer to some routing table.  NAT  and	 masquerading  rules  have  an
       attribute  to  select  new IP address to translate/masquerade.  Besides
       that, rules have some optional attributes, which	 routes	 have,	namely
       realms.	 These	values	do not override those contained in the routing
       tables.	They are only used if the route did not select any attributes.


       The RPDB may contain rules of the following types:

	       unicast	- the rule prescribes to return the route found in the
	       routing table referenced by the rule.

	       blackhole - the rule prescribes to silently drop the packet.

	       unreachable - the rule prescribes to  generate  a  'Network  is
	       unreachable' error.

	       prohibit	 -  the	 rule prescribes to generate 'Communication is
	       administratively prohibited' error.

	       nat - the rule prescribes to translate the  source  address  of
	       the IP packet into some other value.


   ip rule add - insert a new rule
   ip rule delete - delete a rule
       type TYPE (default)
	      the type of this rule.  The list of valid types was given in the
	      previous subsection.


       from PREFIX
	      select the source prefix to match.


       to PREFIX
	      select the destination prefix to match.


       iif NAME
	      select the incoming device to match.  If the interface is	 loop-
	      back,  the rule only matches packets originating from this host.
	      This means that you may create separate routing tables for  for-
	      warded  and local packets and, hence, completely segregate them.


       oif NAME
	      select the outgoing device to match.  The outgoing interface  is
	      only  available  for packets originating from local sockets that
	      are bound to a device.


       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
	      select the TOS value to match.


       fwmark MARK
	      select the fwmark value to match.


       priority PREFERENCE
	      the priority of this rule.  Each rule should have an  explicitly
	      set unique priority value.  The options preference and order are
	      synonyms with priority.


       table TABLEID
	      the routing table identifier to  lookup  if  the	rule  selector
	      matches.	It is also possible to use lookup instead of table.


       realms FROM/TO
	      Realms  to  select  if  the  rule	 matched and the routing table
	      lookup succeeded.	 Realm TO is only used if the  route  did  not
	      select any realm.


       nat ADDRESS
	      The  base	 of  the  IP  address  block  to translate (for source
	      addresses).  The ADDRESS may be either the start of the block of
	      NAT  addresses  (selected by NAT routes) or a local host address
	      (or even zero).  In the last case the router does not  translate
	      the packets, but masquerades them to this address.  Using map-to
	      instead of nat means the same thing.

	      Warning: Changes to the RPDB made with  these  commands  do  not
	      become  active  immediately.   It is assumed that after a script
	      finishes a batch of updates, it flushes the routing  cache  with
	      ip route flush cache.


   ip rule flush - also dumps all the deleted rules.
       This command has no arguments.


   ip rule show - list rules
       This  command  has  no arguments.  The options list or lst are synonyms
       with show.


ip maddress - multicast addresses management
       maddress objects are multicast addresses.


   ip maddress show - list multicast addresses
       dev NAME (default)
	      the device name.


   ip maddress add - add a multicast address
   ip maddress delete - delete a multicast address
       these commands attach/detach a static link layer multicast  address  to
       listen  on  the interface.  Note that it is impossible to join protocol
       multicast groups statically.  This  command  only  manages  link	 layer
       addresses.


       address LLADDRESS (default)
	      the link layer multicast address.


       dev NAME
	      the device to join/leave this multicast address.


ip mroute - multicast routing cache management
       mroute  objects	are  multicast routing cache entries created by a user
       level mrouting daemon (f.e.  pimd or mrouted ).

       Due to the limitations of the current interface to the multicast	 rout-
       ing engine, it is impossible to change mroute objects administratively,
       so we may only display them.  This limitation will be  removed  in  the
       future.


   ip mroute show - list mroute cache entries
       to PREFIX (default)
	      the  prefix  selecting  the  destination	multicast addresses to
	      list.


       iif NAME
	      the interface on which multicast packets are received.


       from PREFIX
	      the prefix selecting the IP source addresses  of	the  multicast
	      route.


ip tunnel - tunnel configuration
       tunnel  objects	are  tunnels,  encapsulating packets in IP packets and
       then sending them over the IP  infrastructure.	The  encapulating  (or
       outer)  address	family	is specified by the -f option.	The default is
       IPv4.


   ip tunnel add - add a new tunnel
   ip tunnel change - change an existing tunnel
   ip tunnel delete - destroy a tunnel
       name NAME (default)
	      select the tunnel device name.


       mode MODE
	      set the tunnel mode. Available modes depend on the encapsulating
	      address family.
	      Modes  for  IPv4	encapsulation available: ipip, sit, isatap and
	      gre.
	      Modes for IPv6 encapsulation available: ip6ip6, ipip6 and any.


       remote ADDRESS
	      set the remote endpoint of the tunnel.


       local ADDRESS
	      set the fixed local address for tunneled packets.	 It must be an
	      address on another interface of this host.


       ttl N  set  a  fixed  TTL  N on tunneled packets.  N is a number in the
	      range 1--255. 0 is a special value meaning that packets  inherit
	      the  TTL value.  The default value for IPv4 tunnels is: inherit.
	      The default value for IPv6 tunnels is: 64.



       tos T

       dsfield T

       tclass T
	      set a fixed TOS (or traffic class in IPv6) T on  tunneled	 pack-
	      ets.  The default value is: inherit.


       dev NAME
	      bind the tunnel to the device NAME so that tunneled packets will
	      only be routed via this device and will not be able to escape to
	      another device when the route to endpoint changes.


       nopmtudisc
	      disable  Path  MTU  Discovery  on this tunnel.  It is enabled by
	      default.	Note that  a  fixed  ttl  is  incompatible  with  this
	      option: tunnelling with a fixed ttl always makes pmtu discovery.


       key K

       ikey K

       okey K ( only GRE tunnels ) use keyed GRE with key K.  K	 is  either  a
	      number  or  an  IP  address-like dotted quad.  The key parameter
	      sets the key to use in  both  directions.	  The  ikey  and  okey
	      parameters set different keys for input and output.


       csum, icsum, ocsum
	      (	 only  GRE  tunnels  ) generate/require checksums for tunneled
	      packets.	The ocsum flag calculates checksums for outgoing pack-
	      ets.   The  icsum	 flag requires that all input packets have the
	      correct checksum.	 The csum flag is equivalent to	 the  combina-
	      tion icsum ocsum.


       seq, iseq, oseq
	      (	 only  GRE tunnels ) serialize packets.	 The oseq flag enables
	      sequencing of outgoing packets.  The iseq flag requires that all
	      input packets are serialized.  The seq flag is equivalent to the
	      combination iseq oseq.  It isn't work. Don't use it.


       dscp inherit
	      ( only IPv6 tunnels ) Inherit DS field between inner  and	 outer
	      header.


       encaplim ELIM
	      (	 only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed encapsulation limit.  Default
	      is 4.


       flowlabel FLOWLABEL
	      ( only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed flowlabel.


   ip tunnel prl - potential router list (ISATAP only)
       dev NAME
	      mandatory device name.


       prl-default ADDR

       prl-nodefault ADDR

       prl-delete ADDR
	      Add or delete ADDR as a potential router or default router.


   ip tunnel show - list tunnels
       This command has no arguments.


ip monitor and rtmon - state monitoring
       The ip utility can monitor the state of devices, addresses  and	routes
       continuously.   This  option  has a slightly different format.  Namely,
       the monitor command is the first in  the	 command  line	and  then  the
       object list follows:

       ip monitor [ all | LISTofOBJECTS ]

       OBJECT-LIST  is	the  list of object types that we want to monitor.  It
       may contain link, address and route.  If no file argument is given,  ip
       opens  RTNETLINK,  listens  on it and dumps state changes in the format
       described in previous sections.


       If a file name is given, it does not listen on RTNETLINK, but opens the
       file  containing	 RTNETLINK  messages  saved in binary format and dumps
       them.  Such a history file can be generated  with  the  rtmon  utility.
       This utility has a command line syntax similar to ip monitor.  Ideally,
       rtmon should be started before the first network configuration  command
       is issued. F.e. if you insert:

	       rtmon file /var/log/rtmon.log

       in a startup script, you will be able to view the full history later.


       Certainly,  it is possible to start rtmon at any time.  It prepends the
       history with the state snapshot dumped at the moment of starting.


ip xfrm - setting xfrm
       xfrm is an IP framework, which can transform format of the datagrams,
       i.e. encrypt the packets with some  algorithm.  xfrm  policy  and  xfrm
       state  are  associated  through templates TMPL_LIST.  This framework is
       used as a part of IPsec protocol.


   ip xfrm state add - add new state into xfrm
   ip xfrm state update - update existing xfrm state
   ip xfrm state allocspi - allocate SPI value
       MODE   is set as default to transport, but it could be set to tunnel,ro
	      or beet.


       FLAG-LIST
	      contains one or more flags.


       FLAG   could be set to noecn, decap-dscp or wildrecv.


       ENCAP  encapsulation  is	 set  to encapsulation type ENCAP-TYPE, source
	      port SPORT, destination port DPORT and OADDR.


       ENCAP-TYPE
	      could be set to espinudp or espinudp-nonike.


       ALGO-LIST
	      contains one or more algorithms ALGO which depend on the type of
	      algorithm set by ALGO_TYPE.  It can be used these algoritms enc,
	      auth or comp.


   ip xfrm policy add - add a new policy
   ip xfrm policy update - update an existing policy
   ip xfrm policy delete - delete existing policy
   ip xfrm policy get - get existing policy
   ip xfrm policy deleteall - delete all existing xfrm policy
   ip xfrm policy list - print out the list of xfrm policy
   ip xfrm policy flush - flush policies
       It can be flush all policies or only those specified with ptype.


       dir DIR
	      directory could be one of these: inp, out or fwd.


       SELECTOR
	      selects for which addresses will	be  set	 up  the  policy.  The
	      selector is defined by source and destination address.


       UPSPEC is defined by source port sport, destination port dport, type as
	      number and code also number.


       dev DEV
	      specify network device.


       index INDEX
	      the number of indexed policy.


       ptype PTYPE
	      type is set as default on main, could be switch on sub.


       action ACTION
	      is set as default on allow.  It could be switch on block.


       priority PRIORITY
	      priority is a number. Default priority is set on zero.


       LIMIT-LIST
	      limits are set in seconds, bytes or numbers of packets.


       TMPL-LIST
	      template list is based on ID, mode, reqid and level.


       ID     is specified by source address, destination address,  proto  and
	      value of spi.


       XFRM_PROTO
	      values: esp, ah, comp, route2 or hao.


       MODE   is set as default on transport, but it could be set on tunnel or
	      beet.


       LEVEL  is set as default on required and the other choice is use.


       UPSPEC is specified by sport, dport, type and code (NUMBER).


   ip xfrm monitor - is used for listing all objects or defined group of them.
       The  xfrm  monitor  can monitor the policies for all objects or defined
       group of them.


HISTORY
       ip was written by Alexey N. Kuznetsov and added in Linux 2.2.

SEE ALSO
       tc(8)
       IP Command reference ip-cref.ps
       IP tunnels ip-cref.ps
       User documentation at http://lartc.org/, but please  direct  bugreports
       and patches to: 


AUTHOR
       Original Manpage	 by Michail Litvak 



iproute2			17 January 2002				 IP(8)

 


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